Using Gradle and Bower to Manage JS/CSS Dependencies

Gradle (and other build systems) have done a good job of managing classpath dependencies. They are effective at pulling
new versions of packages to get bug fixes, et al and including dependencies in packaging. JavaScript, stylesheets and the like also have tools
to manage dependencies but are not first class citizens with classpath dependencies. Bower is one tool that handles
dependencies like JavaScript and stylesheets. This post will show you a way to leverage Bower to
manage those dependencies using Gradle tasks.

There are other solutions that handle the dependency problem. For example, there are Grails plugins for a few popular
frameworks. The drawback is that when the source project releases a new version, the plugin author must release a new
plugin. It’s very likely Bower will be updated by the source project, so the approach here will provide better dependency

One problem with Bower is that the packages usually have more files than one would want on a production server. We’ll
use the Gradle Sync task to handle that. It’s a bit more work, but worth it.

Another issue with using Bower is that it’s a NodeJS application. That means we need Node and NPM installed. We’ll solve
that using the gradle-node-plugin.

In summary, here’s what we’ll be doing:

  1. Use gradle-node-plugin to ensure bower is installed
  2. Specify bower packages to install
  3. Copy production files to the web application destination

All source code for this post and a working application are available on

Managing Node and Bower in Gradle

Bower is a NodeJS package. Although many development and CI environments have Node installed, that’s not guaranteed to
be true or perhaps differing versions cause problems for your application. Ideally a Gradle build consists of having a
JDK installed, pull the repo, and run ./gradlew build.

The gradle-node-plugin manages an install of Node and NPM (Node Package Manager) from your Gradle build to deliver
consistent behavior whenever you build. It can be configured to use an existing Node install, or always download the
specified version. Now we’ll add this plugin to our build.

Add the dependency:

Configure Node versions:

Since caching of dependencies is important for a faster build, we’ll instruct the Gradle managed NPM to cache packages
into our Gradle cache. In order for this to work, the tasks we’ll create later need to depend on this task.

Installing Bower

We’ll use the package.json file to specify dependencies for NPM and then invoke it to install those dependencies. This file
belongs in the root of the project. You can read about the contents of the file at

Now we need a task to install NPM dependencies. There is an npmInstall task provided with the gradle-node-plugin, but
it doesn’t install into our local node_modules folder and we want that to avoid version conflicts and also to be able
to find the bower command without depending on the search path. It looks like the location of the node_modules folder
can be specified in the latest plugin, but that code was not released as of this writing.

Run ./gradlew npmPackages and Gradle will install Node, NPM and Bower. All will be cached in the Gradle user home. This
should work across operating systems and not depend on anything but a properly installed JDK 1.7+.

Specifying Bower Packages

Bower uses a file named bower.json to specify package dependencies. In this project we’re bringing in AngularJS
and Animate.css.

The following task will invoke Bower to download, cache and install the packages at bower_components:

Copying Production Files

The most difficult part of this process is how to get the files Bower has fetched for us into our application. Bower
fetches the entire repository so we have more files than we want in production. There is no definitive way to determine
which files we need out of each repo automatically, so we’ll use a Gradle Sync task to copy over the files.

You will need to inspect each package for the files you want. In this example we’ve excluded the minified versions because
we’re using the asset-pipeline plugin to minify things for us. We’re including all of the files in one application.js
file and they will be minified together. This part isn’t necessary, you can include the minified versions and include each
individually. The important part is that you need to identify which files will be installed in production.

Here is the task for the JavaScript files:

Here is the task for the Stylesheets:

For convenience we’ll have one task that depends on both:

Now we’ll have the processResources and assetCompile tasks depend on the bowerPackages task so our files will be
copied before running the application or compiling. processResources is specific to the java Gradle plugin, and
assetCompile is specific to the asset-pipeline plugin used by Grails. You might need to
adjust these dependencies to ensure the files are available when needed. It’s a good idea to use the --dry-run flag to
verify the tasks are called at the correct time and try your builds on a clean workspace.

The final Gradle change is to augment the clean task to remove the node_modules and bower_components folders.

You’ll want to add the following to your .gitignore file:

Include the File in the Grails Application

One more thing to do and that’s include the bower-managed dependencies in our application. This is a Grails 3 application,
when you’re using another stack including the files will be different.

There’s more work left to actually use these in our application. The pet-store application is intended to demonstrate
that the dependencies are brought in correctly and not necessarily an example of best practice use of AngularJS and Animate.css
in a Grails application, but go ahead and take a look at the page source and note that the dependencies are included.

Run It!

We should now be able to run our application and use the JS/CSS Bower has installed.

./grails run-app


Dependency management is an important problem to solve and we want to avoid manually downloading and copying JS/CSS and
the like into our repository. Bower is a popular solution and many projects publish to it. There’s a bit of work to set up
Gradle to invoke Bower (made much easier by the gradle-node-plugin), but once done maintenance will be significantly
easier. Now we have proper dependency management in a Gradle build with one step to an executable. Also, it appears that
most of this work could be added to the gradle-node-plugin and a new task created for installing Bower dependencies.

One thought on “Using Gradle and Bower to Manage JS/CSS Dependencies

  1. Sven Ehrke says:

    Or you could use webjars for angular, jquery so that you do not have to use bower etc. Wrote about it here:

    1. Cool! Thanks for sharing, Sven. I was not aware of the Servlet 3.0 spec concerning META-INF/resources.

  2. Alexandr says:

    Hi! Does this plugin supports external (already installed) node and npm?

    1. Alexandr says:

      This plugin can’t work with external node 🙂

      node {
      version = ‘0.12.2’
      npmVersion = ‘2.7.5’
      download = false
      workDir = file(“${project.projectDir}/${clientSourcePath}”) //d:\projects\test\src\main\webapp\client
      nodeModulesDir = file(nodeModulesDir) //d:\nodejs

      task npmPackages(type: NpmTask) {
      description = “Install Node.js packages”
      args = [‘install’]
      workingDir = file(“${project.projectDir}/${clientSourcePath}”)
      inputs.files file(‘package.json’) // location is here – d:\projects\test\src\main\webapp\client – but we can comment it, do not affect
      outputs.upToDateWhen { false }
      outputs.files file(‘node_modules’) // we can comment it, do not affect

      During running npmPackages task throws exception:
      Error: Cannot find module ‘d:\projects\test\src\main\webapp\client\node_modules\npm\bin\npm-cli.js’

      Why plugin search npm-cli in project when configured nodeModulesDir? How I shoud change configuration?

      1. From reading, specifying the `version` and `npmVersion` instructs the plugin to use a specific node version. In particular `npmVersion` says to not use the locally installed `npm`. Remove those settings and see what happens. Note that I haven’t tried using a local install because I think it’s better when using CI to specify the versions so all builds are using consistent versions.

  3. Angel says:

    Here you have an example of using Gradle + WebJars in a non Java EE web application ->

  4. Mark Fortner says:

    There’s a project called nodyn ( which is a node-compatible implementation that runs on the JVM. I’m wondering if anyone has tried to use it along with other javascript-based build tools. It would be great if you could build your application without having to call other tools outside of the JVM.

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